Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the PRC & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the PRC
Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) was launched and recognized by FAO. GIAHS are defined as” Remarkable land use systems and landscapes which are rich in globally significant biology diversity evolving from the co-adaptation of a community with its environment and its needs and aspirations for sustainable development. Since 2002, FAO has designated 62 sites in 22 countries as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems. Under the efforts of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, with the joint efforts of local departments, scientific research institutes, and the relevant stakeholders, 15 outstanding traditional eco-agricultural systems have been identified and recognized by FAO as GIAHS in China.
Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System, Zhejiang Province
Honghe Hani Rice Terraces System, Yunnan Province
Wannian-Traditional Rice Culture System, Jiangxi Province
Congjiang Dong's Rice-Fish-Duck System, Guizhou Province
Pu’er Traditional Tea Agrosystem, Yunnan Province
Aohan Dryland Farming System, Inner Mongolia
Urban Agricultural Heritage of Xuanhua Grape Gardens, Hebei Province
Shaoxing Kuaijishan Ancient Chinese Torreya, Zhejiang Province
The ancient Chinese Torreya trees in the Kuaijishan Community, thousands of which are more than 1000 years old, form a spectacular landscape together with traditional villages, streams and mountains. The ancient grafting and artificial selection technique is applied, making it a rare “living fossil”.
Fuzhou Jasmine and Tea Culture System, Fujian Province
Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem, Jiangsu Province
Jiaxian Traditional Chinese Date Gardens, Shaanxi Province
Huzhou Mulberry-dyke and Fish Pond System, Zhejiang Province
Huzhou Mulberry-dyke and Fish Pond System is located along the southern part of Taihu Lake. By constructing water conservancy projects, local people controlled the flood and turned the low-lying waterlogged land into fish ponds and used the mud from the ponds to build the dykes. Gradually, they have developed a typical circular ecosystem for farming activities, which includes the components of growing mulberry on the dyke, feeding silkworms with mulberry leaves, using silkworm excreta as fish food and fish excreta as manure for the pond, and heaping pond mud around the roots of mulberry.
Diebu Zhagana Agriculture-Forestry-Animal Husbandry Composite System, Gansu Province
Zhagana Agriculture-Forestry-Animal Husbandry Composite System is a typical model of a complex mixture of agriculture, pasture farming and forestry. Within this system, farms, rivers, villagers, temples exist in great harmony with the surrounding forestry and grassland. The rivers come across from the grassland and forestry, whose bed can be used for crop farming. Local villagers will become herdsmen, farmers, hunters and woodcutters throughout the year according to the different seasons and farming calendar, giving full play to the role of agricultural production and ecological functions of this system.
Xiajin Yellow River Old Course Ancient Mulberry Grove System, Shandong Province
Traditional Mulberry System in Xiajin’s Ancient Yellow River Course has the oldest and largest ancient mulberry grove in China. It has multiple functions in sand control, biodiversity conservation, utilization of biological resources, etc. It is the representation of farming and sericulture activities in the Yellow River basin.
Rice Terraces in Southern Mountainous and Hilly areas, The Ziquejie Terraces in Xinhua, Hunan Province
Rice Terraces in Southern Mountainous and Hilly areas,The Lianhe Terraces in Youxi, Fujian Province
The Lianhe Terraces in Youxi, Fujian have a unique agricultural system in the mountainous areas that combines bamboo groves, villages, terraces and streams. Within this system, natural precipitation is stored in the bamboo groves at the mountaintop and then forms streams that flow down into the villages and farmland.
Rice Terraces in Southern Mountainous and Hilly areas, The Guangxi Longsheng Longji Terraces, Guangxi Province
The Longji Terraces in Longsheng, Guangxi are named after the mountain range like the dragon’s back. Through many years of practices, the local people have developed a comprehensive technology and knowledge system for agricultural production and the local rules that ensure steady evolution of this system. They have set up a mode of “forest above and farmland below, and dynamic balance” for water and soil conservation at the terraces.
Rice Terraces in Southern Mountainous and Hilly areas, The Hakka Terraces in Chongyi, Jiangxi Province
The Hakka Terraces in Chongyi, Jiangxi have a history of more than 800 years. The Hakka ancestors who migrated from the Central Plains gradually developed their distinctive cultures and customs permeated with ideas for terrace farming, which has become a unique component of the Hakka farming civilization.
Shexian Dryland Stone Terraced System, Hebei Province (Purposed Site)
Shexian Dryland Stone Terraced System adopts the stone-ridge terraces and a variety of crop rotation systems, which solves the problem of instability and helps to maximize the space for stone terraces, reflecting the system’s dynamic characteristic to adapt to social and economic changes, and this system is a model for the development of mountain agriculture in the arid regions of northern China.
Anxi Tieguanyin Tea Culture System, Fujian Province (Purposed Site)
Anxi has a history of tea production for more than 1,000 years. It is home to oolong tea in China and is an important cultural symbol of the “Maritime Silk Road”. The ecological system, production system, and cultural system derived from Anxi Tieguanyin constitute the Tieguanyin tea culture system of Anxi, Fujian, which is a model of tea farming culture.
Ar Horqin Grassland Nomadic System, Inner Mongolia (Purposed Site)
Qingyuan Forest-Mushroom Co-culture System, Zhejiang Province (Purposed Site)
Qingyuan Forest-Mushroom Co-culture System is a mountain forest-agricultural compound system formed by local people for thousands of years. It has a unique forest-mushroom co-cultivation technology system, rich forest ecological and mushroom culture, and an ecological landscape with coherent structure.